Affordable thermal energy from waste: thermal treatment methods
Across the globe the search for cheap heat sources has been going on for years. With technological and scientific advances it is now possible to generate thermal energy from all types of waste and fuels. Burning of fossil fuels, biomass, gas, and fuel oil is now obsolete, say leading scientists at all kinds of conferences and meetings. The way forward is circular economy. But what is it exactly?
Circular economy is a closed-loop system for managing waste, raw materials, and manufacture so as to optimise the efficiency of production, as well as heat and power generation. In short, it amounts to waste re-use for thermal utilization, which is both friendly for the environment and cheap, solving two problems at once: that of waste and that of cheap heat and power.
We provide a number of solutions to achieve circular economy. Our technologies are based on the innovative process of micronization of solids and raw materials. With micronization, i.e. milling particles down to the diameter of several microns, fuels can be used in the production of a wide range of alternative fuels. Micronized black coal or lignite can be mixed with RDF, straw, sewage sludge, etc. and then burned.
Incineration, or thermal utilization, generates cheap energy that can be used in other technological processes, such as for drying or – using cogeneration – converted into electricity. Our offer includes systems for the cogeneration from biomass and alternative fuels.
The aforementioned process of micronization in special mills combines reduction of particle size with fuel drying and disinfection. Importantly, its end product is homogeneous fuel that can be burned in pulverised coal (PC) burners and in industrial stepped furnaces.
Circular economy exploits cheap raw materials and fuels to generate power and heat. It is widely used not only in communes, districts and municipalities, but also by large concerns and factories that care about the environment and wish to strengthen their prestige and brand image. We are currently offering solutions for efficient burning of:
- sewage sludge
- RDF and its mixes
- agricultural waste
- agro- and biomass waste
- alternative fuels
Sewage sludge is a by-product of biological wastewater treatment at treatment plants. It has high calorific value, and after micronization can serve as a component of many alternative fuels. It can be thermally utilized in PC burners.
According to the latest regulations, RDF as a waste fraction with calorific potential cannot be stored. It can be incinerated at incineration plants, as well as cement factories. However, it can also form part of alternative fuels, and is promising when mixed with lignite, black coal, and woodchips, straw. For example, a mixture of RDF and woodchips can be gasified, and the resultant gas diverted to cogeneration engines.
Agricultural waste – cheap materials, such as branches, hay, or straw that are easily converted into highly calorific briquettes and require very little investment in the communal heat boiler station or local boiler house. Obviously, there is also a wide range of agricultural biogas plants. For biogas plants we have containerised boiler solutions for start-up purposes.
Alternative fuels, or various mixes of waste and raw materials; many kinds are produced. They can be incinerated in stepped furnaces or gasified. Both methods provide for a quick and cheap way of obtaining heat, or, with the use of gas engines or steam turbines – cheap power.
The above methods of waste usage and thermal utilization are commercially available and guarantee energy independence – the foundation of circular economy. But, most importantly, they provide the cheapest heat and power sources, and heating solutions.